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Side View of the Prostate The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate is just in front of the rectum. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, letting urine flow out of the body.

The prostate secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and it’s expelled with sperm as semen.

Both men and women experience Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), but this is more common in women. Alternatively termed as bladder infection, this is mainly caused by the bacterium E.Coli though other bacteria, fungi and parasites may also be responsible for this condition.A definite population of E.Coli already exists in the large intestine, and sometimes they manage to get into the body through the urethra. Urethra is a small tube connecting the urinary bladder that helps in eliminating urine. Women are prone to UTI due to the close proximity of the urethra and the bladder, which provides an easy access for the germs to reach the bladder. Again, the chances of this infection are higher in pregnant women.

Urinary incontinence happens when you lose control of your bladder. In some cases, you may empty your bladder’s contents completely. In other cases, you may experience only minor leakage. The condition may be temporary or chronic, depending on its cause.

According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, millions of adults in the United States experience urinary incontinence. It’s more common among women and people over 50 years of age. But anyone can be affected by this condition.

As you age the muscles that support your bladder tend to weaken. This can lead to urinary incontinence.

Kidney and ureteral stones are very common, but it is difficult to get an accurate figure for the number of sufferers .

A stone is a hard mass which develops from crystals which separate from the urine within the urinary tract. They can be found in the kidneys, or in the ureter (the tube leading from the kidney to the bladder).

Kidney or ureter stones often pass without any discomfort but this disease can be amongst the most painful experiences known.

Upwards of 15-20% of kidney tumors may be benign lesions. While physicians and surgeons can use patient information, radiographic imaging and biopsy to provide information, the definitive diagnosis of cancer or benign tumor is established only after the tumor has been removed. For instance, smaller tumors, female sex and age are associated with benign tumors – younger women are nearly twice as likely as age-matched men to have benign masses.[1-5] While certain characteristics are indicative of benign tumors (i.e. fat always indicates an angiomyolipoma), many other benign tumors – like oncocytoma – can appear similar to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on CT scan and biopsy.

Stones occur within the urinary bladder due to incomplete bladder emptying, urinary stasis, and/or chronic bladder infections. With time, the urine that is not voided begins to harbor bacteria and contain higher amounts of mucus, sediment and urinary minerals, eventually resulting in a bladder calculus.

Surgical options for patients with symptomatic bladder stones include open cystolithotomy, percutaneous cystolithotomy, or cystoscopic laser lithotripsy with stone extraction (cystolithalopaxy – meaning “a look into the bladder to crush a stone.”). Your bladder/urethral anatomy, your bladder stone size, and body habitus all play major roles in determining outcomes and operative approach. Also, whether or not a prostate procedure is necessary at the time of stone removal is an important consideration for men with enlarged prostates and bladder stones.